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Marighella, Carlos (1911–1969)

Carlos Marighella, one of South America's most famous revolutionaries, founded and controlled the Acao Libertadora Nacional (Action for National Liberation; ALN). His writings include essays on revolutionary method and the Minimanual of the Urban Guerrilla (1969), a handbook for urban warfare that has influenced terrorists the world over since its publication.

Son of Augustus and Marialva Marighella, a black Italian immigrant to Brazil, Carlos Marighella was born on December 5, 1911 in the Bahia state of eastern Brazil. At age 19 he joined the Brazilian Communist Party (PCB) as an organizer and activist. He spent most of the years during World War II in jail; when released in 1952, he joined the Central Committee of the Communist Party; he traveled to China in 1953 and met with Mao Tse-tung.

By 1963, Brazil had experienced a military coup and had become a totalitarian ...

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