The chi-square (x2) is a test of significance for categorical variables. Significance tests let the researcher know what the probability is that a given sample estimate actually mirrors the entire population. The chi-square can be used as a goodness-of-fit test, in univariate analysis, or as a test of independence, in bivariate analysis. The latter is the most generally used. In this case, the test measures the significance of the relationship between two categorical variables, representing the first step toward bivariate analysis. For example, if a survey researcher wanted to learn whether gender is associated with an attitude (negative or positive) toward the U.S. involvement in Iraq, chi-square is the simplest significance test to consider to investigate whether or not there are reliable gender-related differences in ...

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