Every scientific survey has a target population that is operationalized by a sampling frame. Ideally, all units in the sampling frame should match those in the target population on a one-to-one basis. In reality, misalignment between the two occurs and is termed coverage error. Noncoverage is one of the elements of coverage error arising from the imperfectness of a sampling frame that fails to include some portion of the population. Because these frames cover less than what they should, noncoverage is also termed under cover age. Noncoverage is the most frequently occurring coverage problem, and it may have serious effects because this problem cannot be recognized easily in the given frame. Because the target population is defined with extent and time, the magnitude of noncoverage ...

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