Mode-Related Error

Face-to-face (in-person) surveys, telephone, mail, and Web surveys are common types of data collection modes in current survey research. These modes can be classified into two categories: (1) self-administered versus interviewer-administered, depending on whether interviewers are involved in interviewing, (2) and paper-and-pencil versus computer-assisted, depending on whether computerized instruments are employed in surveys. Currently, the two types of classification for survey modes are widely used for comparing response rates or survey errors. Total survey errors—sampling, coverage, nonresponse, measurement, and processing error—do not equally emerge from each mode. That is, the type and magnitude of error varies with the mode.

Sampling error is not directly influenced by modes. All sample surveys inevitably encounter this error, due to the fact that the whole target population is not ...

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