Substance use disorders are a complex and debilitating set of conditions. Substance use disorders are highly prevalent, are related to increased morbidity and mortality, and are often comorbid with other psychiatric phenotypes, thereby constituting a major public health concern. Without treatment, substance use disorders confer cost to both the individuals and society in various forms (e.g., lost productivity at work, health care costs, violence, child abuse and neglect, and judicial system costs). Fortunately, addiction is treatable, and therefore, immense effort from researchers and clinicians has been employed to develop and implement successful treatments, both psychological and pharmacological, for individuals afflicted with addictive disorders. Many programs and modalities have been developed such as Twelve-Step Facilitation cognitive therapy (e.g., Beck's cognitive therapy), behavior therapy (e.g., contingency

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