Mental and physical disorders resulting from the use of drugs and alcohol are highly prevalent in the United States, with males affected 2 to 3 times more frequently than females. These disorders have debilitating effects, as they are associated with increased mortality rates, homelessness, child maltreatment, homicide, suicide, and other problem behaviors that extensively tax the health care system. The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) includes a general category for these disorders called substance related disorders, which is further broken down into two general categories: substance use disorders and substance-induced disorders. Substance use disorders include the diagnoses of substance abuse and substance dependence, while substance-induced disorders include substance intoxication, substance withdrawal, and eight additional substance-induced ...

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