Anabolic-androgenic steroids, more commonly known as anabolic steroids, are synthetic structural derivatives of the male sex hormone testosterone. The administration of these substances produces anabolic (i.e., increases in skeletal muscle and lean body mass) and androgenic changes (i.e., masculinization) in men and women. Common routes of administration include oral (e.g., Anadrol, Oxandrin, Dianabol, Winstrol) and intramuscular injection (e.g., Deca-Durabolin, Durabolin, Depo-Testosterone, Equipoise, Tetrahydrogestrinone). Anabolic steroids were developed in the 1930s as a medical treatment for diseases associated with low testosterone, particularly hypogonadism, which can lead to abnormal growth, erectile dysfunction, and infertility. These drugs have demonstrated therapeutic effects for other medical conditions, such as reversing weight and muscle loss (i.e., body wasting) among HIV patients; ameliorating some of the side effects of hysterectomies, such as ...

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