Clinical observations of marijuana use in the 1960s led to the development of a label for a constellation of symptoms called "amotivational syndrome," which was thought to be a long-term effect of heavy marijuana use. Symptoms include apathy, decreased productivity, decreased energy levels, depression, inability to concentrate, loss of motivation, and decreased goal-directed behavior. Amotivational syndrome does not refer to the acute intoxication of marijuana but rather the general characteristics of heavy marijuana users even when they are not high from the drug. Many studies in the 1960s and 1970s sought to empirically validate the existence of the syndrome, yet all of the studies had methodological flaws that made it difficult to draw definitive conclusions. As the literature on marijuana use accumulated, research was conducted ...

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