Morphine is an opioid that acts directly on the central nervous system to relieve pain. Morphine, in effect, mimics our endogenous opioids. Morphine also produces sleepiness, mood alteration (euphoria or dyspho-ria), reduced gastrointestinal motility, diminished respiration, peripheral vasodilatation, and pupil contraction. Morphine can be administered through injection, orally, by inhalation, through rectal suppositories, and is available in capsules and in extended-release tablets. Some chronic pain patients have an implanted morphine pump. Morphine is also used for epidural injections. Morphine is the only opioid that has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for intrathecal administration. Morphine crosses the placenta and has been found in breast milk. Morphine is contraindicated for use in patients with acute alcoholism, delirium tremens, convulsive disorders, acute pancreatitis, renal failure, ...

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