In surveys such as the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, injection drug use is defined as the use of a needle to inject a drug that is not prescribed for the user or only for the feeling or experience that the drug causes. Injection drug use in a survey is assessed by asking the respondents whether they had injected heroin, cocaine, methamphetamines, or other stimulants during a specified time. Investigators, such as Vlahov and colleagues, have performed physical examinations to ascertain the presence of track marks and other physical evidence of injection drug use. Injection drug users are at high risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C, and other bloodborne infections.


The National Survey on Drug Use and Health is an annual survey ...

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