Athletes have been known to use stimulants in and out of competition. Most stimulants are banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), but a few stimulants, such as caffeine, are monitored and allowed up to certain levels in the urine.

Stimulants are substances that activate the sympathetic nervous system. This is the part of human physiology that gives us the “fright, fight, or flight” response. The sympathetic nervous system is what gives a person the burst of energy, power, and alertness to deal effectively with a threat or stressor. In the ...

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