Miserable Malalignment Syndrome

Anterior knee pain in children and adolescents, often assigned the vague diagnosis of “patellofemoral syndrome,” may have a number of different causes. Subtle anatomic abnormalities in the alignment of an adolescent's hips, knees, or legs can contribute to anterior knee pain. Miserable malalignment syndrome (MMS) is a term used to describe a triad of anatomic findings—excessive femoral anteversion (inward rotation of the knee, relative to the hip), increased knee Q angle (alignment that creates an outward pull on the kneecap by the connecting ...

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