Each year in sports, it is estimated that nearly 300,000 concussions occur at all levels of competition. Concussions are likely underreported as athletes may withhold their symptoms from coaches, teammates, parents, athletic trainers, and physicians for fear of being kept out of competition.


In 2001, a new definition of sports-related concussion was proposed. Sports-related concussion is defined as a complex pathophysiologic process induced by biomechanical forces that affects the brain. Major features of a sports-related concussion include the following:

  • Caused by a direct blow to the face, head, neck, or ...
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