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The People's Republic of China's society and culture has long valued education, and it has expanded schooling in the last three decades. However, educational opportunities are increasingly unequal because of growing economic disparity. China's hierarchical school system also hinders underprivileged students' access to education. Government exams, economic rewards, and collectivist beliefs have encouraged Chinese parents to support children's education. The Keju civil service exam system from 606 to 1905 not only selected mainland China's government officials, but also gave financial rewards, prestige, power, and fame to their extended family, thereby encouraging collectivist beliefs, values, and norms. In this collectivist culture, extended family members often live nearby, encourage children to study hard and remind them that their success or failure affects their entire family's reputation. As ...

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