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Bowles, Samuel and Herbert Gintis

Since the 19th century movement toward mass education in the United States, Horace Mann's interest in fostering an education that was public has been a continual theme embedded in the public school system. Still, the purpose of schooling in America has been viewed as capitalistic, based on individualism and meritocracy, which counters the initial intention of a public education that should be premised on equitable educational standards. In Schooling in Capitalist America (1976), Bowles and Gintis contest the utility of schools in reproducing social stratification and socialized capitalism in society. The merits of this ideology have been contested as studies have argued that agency plays a role in whether individuals continue the class-based rationale.

The purposes of public education in the United States have long been ...

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