Violence in schools can include fatal and nonfatal victimizations and can range from school shootings and violent assaults to the more common minor assaults and bullying. The term violence has been operationalized in the literature as the threat or use of physical force to cause injury or damage, or to intimidate another person. Indicators of violence can include such behaviors as throwing something at another student; pushing, grabbing, or shoving; slapping, kicking, hitting with a fist; hitting with another object; threatening another student with a gun or knife; or using a gun or knife. Victimization rates vary depending upon the pupil. Students between 12 and 14 are more likely to be victims of school-related violence than older students. Students in urban areas have higher victimization ...

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