Parent-teacher associations are organizations that advocate for the needs of children on a range of issues, from educational to safety and health concerns. With the goal of increasing collaboration between parents and schools, organizations have made an impact in the political and social arenas and have contributed to educational policy reform.

Historical Context

During the late 19th century, calls for child advocacy and protection led to the creation of an organization that was initially known as the National Congress of Mothers. Founded in 1897 by Alice McLellan Birney and Phoebe Apperson Hearst, the organization identified problems and strategized solutions for a number of issues, from child labor laws to the creation of kindergarten classrooms. Although mothers dominated the membership of the National Congress of Mothers, the organization ...

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