Longitudinal research follows individuals over time, often at regular intervals, over long periods. Longitudinal data are collected primarily via survey research methods. In contrast, cross-sectional studies collect information at one point in time, hence providing a snapshot of individuals within a specific time period and context. Longitudinal research on education is invaluable in that it can trace the behaviors, attitudes, and educational, labor market, and other life course experiences and outcomes, such as family formation and fertility patterns of individuals, in relation to their experiences within the educational system. Some longitudinal studies, such as the U.S. High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09) have education as their core organizing principle, whereas others, such as the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70), include questions about education as ...

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