Italy is located in a strategic position between central Europe and the Mediterranean Sea. The country has a population of 60.6 million inhabitants (the fifth-most populous nation in Europe) and the territory covers 116,347 square miles (301,338 square kilometers). The tenth-largest economy in the word, Italy has been a parliamentary republic since 1946, and was one of the founding members of the European Economic Community (now EU) in 1957. It is also a current member of G8 and NATO. Italy has been a national state since 1861, and the educational system before 2012 was regulated by the different kingdoms and states ruling each region.

Throughout the Middle Ages, education in Italy was provided solely by the Catholic Church, to very restricted portions of the population. With ...

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