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  • Reader's guide
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  • By: Ty-Ron M. O. Douglas & Jahni M. A. Smith
  • In: Sociology of Education: An A-to-Z Guide
  • Edited by: James Ainsworth
  • Subject:Sociology of Education (general), Sociology of Education, Education Policy

Grading refers to the act or process of assessing the performance of an individual. In schools, percentages, raw scores out of a possible total (e.g., eight out of 10), descriptive adjectives (e.g., “excellent” or “proficient”) and other quantifiable symbols (e.g., a letter grade of “A”) are common means of representing the achievement level or competence of a student on a given assignment or course. Grading is a vital practice in the structure of traditional educational institutions because it is believed to quantify the proficiency and quality of a student's ability. Social, educational, and economic institutions and systems often rely on the grading process as a means of comparing the quality of individuals for selection, promotion, and employment. Most countries use individual grading scales that are ...

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