Washington, D.C., is the capital of the United States. It enjoys a unique status as a city not located within a state. Governance is characterized by a complex system of federal and local regulations. The municipal government was established in 1802, and the school system was established in 1804. In 1864, the city opened public schools for black children, in a system separate from white students. The school system has functioned under various governing entities, including those instituted via congressional oversight, and in some cases locally elected.

In 1954, school segregation ended with the Brown v. Board of Education lawsuit. In the aftermath of that lawsuit, black student enrollment steadily increased over time, while white enrollment declined in most urban areas. This trend was especially pronounced ...

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