Culture is one of the most complex concepts in social theory. In their classical investigation in 1952, Alfred Kroeber and Clyde Kluckohn already listed several hundred definitions which were used in scientific discourse. In the current usage of language, two concepts of culture may be distinguished: (1) An extended concept of culture that describes all man-made creations of human living conditions; “culture” here is in contrast to all things found in nature. The spectrum of cultural forms then stretches from house building to the use of tools, clothing, and social manners to state and social institutions up to the spheres of science and art. (2) A narrow concept of culture, on the other hand, limits itself to spiritual and artistic aspects. It often carries a ...

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