Symbolic Racism


Symbolic racism is a form of prejudice that Whites in particular hold against Blacks, although it is likely to be held in some measure by other American ethnic groups, and in principle some version of it may target groups other than Blacks. Symbolic racism is usually described as a coherent belief system that can be expressed in several beliefs: that Blacks no longer face much prejudice or discrimination, that Blacks' failure to progress results from their unwillingness to work hard enough, that they make excessive demands, and that they have gotten more than they deserve. The theory of symbolic racism centers on four essential propositions: (1) Symbolic racism has largely replaced old-fashioned racism, in that only a tiny minority of Whites still accept the latter, ...

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