Self-efficacy is defined as people's beliefs in their capabilities to produce desired effects by their own actions. Self-efficacy theory maintains that selfefficacy beliefs are the most important determinants of the behaviors people choose to engage in and how much they persevere in their efforts in the face of obstacles and challenges. Self-efficacy theory also maintains that these self-efficacy beliefs play a crucial role in psychological adjustment, psychological problems, and physical health, as well as in professionally guided and self-guided behavioral change strategies.

Since the publication of Albert Bandura's 1977 Psychological Review article titled “Self-Efficacy: Toward a Unifying Theory of Behavior Change,” the term self-efficacy has become ubiquitous in psychology and related fields. Hundreds of articles on every imaginable aspect of self-efficacy have appeared in journals devoted ...

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