A cross-lagged panel correlation refers to a study in which two variables are measured once and then again at a later time. By comparing the strength of the relationship between each variable at the first point in time with the other variable at the second point in time, the researcher can determine which variable is the cause and which the effect. A cross-lagged panel correlation provides a way of drawing tentative causal conclusions from a study in which none of the variables is manipulated.


Researchers have used cross-lagged panel correlations to determine whether watching televised violence causes aggression or aggression causes people to prefer viewing television violence. To do so, the researchers measured both the preferred amount of violent television viewed and aggressive behavior of third ...

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