Race is a social construction or multidimensional process of competing race projects, as explained by Howard Winant and Michael Omi in their landmark text Racial Formation in the United States (1986). Race as a concept is often produced in social relations, as shaped by cultural, economic, and political systems of power. Race is also understood as a subjective phenomenon articulated in racial identities. Racial “identities” are shaped by perceptions about the physical body (phenotype) and cultural practices. Race as a marker of ...

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