Holding offenders accountable for their behavior is a moral responsibility charged to the criminal justice system. From the earliest history of the United States, religious idealism held individuals personally accountable for criminal and deviant behavior. Even as early as the late 18th century and into the mid-19th century, nonreligious idealism altered the nature of the relationship between God and man and used new methods to hold criminals responsible. By the mid-19th century, positivists viewed the world as having influence over individual behavior in ...

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