Charles I granted Cecilius (Cecil) Calvert, second Lord Baltimore, the proprietary charter for a “palatinate” (feudal government) called Maryland in April 1632. The charter application and settlement plans originated with his father George Calvert, but he died. The charter's controversy was over George's earlier conversion to Roman Catholicism and consequent resignation as a royal minister. Protestant opponents thought that Maryland would become a Catholic colony with residents loyal to the pope instead of to the king. Two ships, the Ark and the Dove, including Jesuit priests, made ...

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