Rutherford B. Hayes (1822–93), the 19th president of the United States, served one term in a time of political and social unrest during the end of the Reconstruction era. During his presidency, he attempted to rebuild relations with the former Confederate states, reform the civil service system, protect the voting rights of African Americans, and bring honesty back to the government. His efforts were minimized, however, by his controversial election and a sharply divided Congress that did not support many of his proposals.

Hayes graduated from Kenyon College in Ohio in ...

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