Courts that receive cases from lower courts for examination of the constitutionality and legality of the lower court's actions, procedures, and decisions are appellate courts. The courts of first instance are usually the courts that try cases and then make decisions of fact about guilt or innocence. The idea of appellate courts can be found in the ancient Mesopotamian courts of the Sumerians, Babylonians, and Persians. It can also be found in the courts of the ancient Egyptians where Maat was the goddess of justice. Appellate courts were instituted ...

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