Albert Einstein is one of the most influential and recognized scientists in history. He is best known for his theories of special and general relativity and his postulation of mass–energy equivalence as expressed by the famous equation E = mc2. In 1905, often called his miracle year, Einstein published five papers, one of which (on his quantum theory of light) won him a Nobel Prize in 1921. Einstein has become the iconic scientific genius of the 20th century, and his picture continues to be featured seemingly everywhere, even a half century after his death.

After measurements taken during a total solar eclipse in 1919 proved Einstein's theory of general relativity was correct, his popularity soared, and he instantly became an international celebrity. Time magazine named Einstein ...

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