The idea of colonizing other worlds has been persistent throughout the history of the space age in official and public discourse about space exploration and in the realm of science fiction. Common rationales offered for the human colonization of outer space are to fulfill human destiny or execute a biological imperative, to spread Earth life throughout the universe, to expand economic development into space, and to protect the human species against global catastrophe.

Primary proponents of space colonization include space advocacy groups and aerospace industries. Challenges to colonizing other worlds include the high cost of space transportation and space-based operations, limited understanding of the effects of varying gravity on human and other life, and the need to consider how new human societies should operate in nonterrestrial ...

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