While traditional, elite-focused forms of consultation and advice gathering dominate the science and technology (S&T) policy landscape in Canada, new trends have emerged. The predominant model of communication with citizens has been a oneway flow of information from policy and scientific elites to the mass public. More recently, though, there has been a broad shift toward experimentation with more participatory forms of public engagement that encourage a two-way model of communication, one that provides a forum for dialogue and mutual learning among citizens, experts, and policymakers.

These more participatory engagement activities have remained for the most part experimental. Significant barriers remain in the Canadian context to integrating more inclusive, two-way communication opportunities as regular practice in the Canadian system. The objective of this entry is to ...

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