Peer review, sometimes also known as “refereeing,” is a process of evaluating scholarly work by others who are experts in the same field to maintain or enhance the work's quality. Peer review is used to legitimate publication of scientific and technical papers and to make funding decisions on proposals. The judgments of reviewers help editors or funding groups determine whether work submitted to a journal, press, committee, foundation, or government agency is published or funded, as well as what items most merit presentation at academic conferences.

The goal of peer review is to ensure that scholarly work submitted for publication, evaluation, or funding is judged on its merits, not solely on the reputation or the institutional affiliation of its authors. As Bruce Thyer explains, having ...

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