The heritability of diseases and traits has fascinated humanity since ancient times. Hippocrates recognized the hereditary transmission of many diseases, and Aristotle noted that children not only have some of the same diseases as their parents but also often share similar characteristics. Most recently, the Human Genome Project marked the beginning of a new era in which mutations implicated in human disease started being discovered at an increasing pace. Breast and ovarian cancer, colon cancer, systemic lupus erythemato-sus, macular degeneration, prostate cancer, diabetes, and psoriasis are just a few conditions for which the genetic basis has been elucidated in the years since the Human Genome Project was initiated. These advances improved our understanding of the genetic basis of several medical conditions and revolutionized the field ...

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