Cooperative learning is the instructional use of small groups such that students work together to maximize their own and each other's learning. In cooperative learning situations, there is a positive interdependence among students' goal attainments; students perceive that they can reach their learning goals if and only if the other students in the learning group also reach their goals (Deutsch, 1962; Johnson & Johnson, 1989). Cooperative learning is usually contrasted with competitive learning (students working to achieve goals that only a few can attain; students can succeed if and only if other students in the class fail to obtain their goals) and individualistic learning (students working alone on goals independent from the goals of others).

There are three types of cooperative learning (Johnson & colleagues, ...

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