School psychology interventions intended to improve the academic or social success of children involve shaping developmental processes in classrooms, in individual interactions with children, and at the level of the school organization. Increasingly, school psychology recognizes the value of taking action prior to the emergence of problems. This perspective can be characterized as a prevention-oriented focus to service delivery (Roberts, 1996).

Risk and Prevention

Risk refers to a probability linking a “risk factor” such as poor academic skills with an outcome such as dropping out of school. Risk does not describe a causal relation, although a risk factor may be part of an etiological process. If in a given school 85% of 3rd graders with test scores below the 25th percentile drop out before 12th grade, the ...

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