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Memory is the ability to encode, process, and retrieve information. As a skill, it is inseparable from intellectual functioning and learning. Individuals deficient in memory skills would be expected to have difficulty on a number of academic and cognitive tasks. Although memory is linked to performance in several academic (e.g., reading) and cognitive (e.g., problem solving) areas, it is critical for learning for three reasons (Swanson & colleagues, 1998). First, it reflects applied cognition; that is, memory functioning reflects all aspects of learning. Second, several studies suggest that the memory skills used by students do not exhaust, or even tap, their ability; therefore, we need to discover instructional procedures that capitalize on that untapped potential. Finally, several cognitive intervention programs that attempt to enhance the ...

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