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Roles and responsibilities of school psychologists have changed and expanded to serving not only school-aged children, but also children younger than age five years. This change has come about as scholars in the field recognize that time-efficient assessments and precise diagnoses can be the basis for early intervention before deviations in development become maladaptive patterns of functioning (Zero to Three, National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families, 1994). Research on early brain development and its relationship to learning, literacy, school readiness, emotional regulation, and resilience has also been highly publicized. Renowned scholar Jerome Bruner (1980) states, “The importance of early childhood for the intellectual, social, and emotional growth of human beings is probably… one of the most revolutionary discoveries of modern times… where emotional and ...

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