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Cooper (1989) defines homework as “tasks assigned to students by school teachers that are meant to be carried out during nonschool hours”(p. 7). Homework accounts for 20% of the time students spend on academic tasks (Cooper & Nye, 1994; Polloway & colleagues, 1992). Frequency of homework increases across school grades. In high school, a student with four to five teachers may have two to three hours of homework per night. According to proponents of extensive homework assignments, the main reason for homework is that it increases total study time; however, other purposes for homework cited by professional educators include:

  • Practice
  • Review and enrichment
  • Makeup work
  • Preparation for future work
  • Test preparation
  • Communication with parents

Time spent on homework, percentage of tasks solved, and effort put into homework constitutes important facets of homework ...

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