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Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

  • By: Agnes E. Shine & Darrell L. Downs
  • In: Encyclopedia of School Psychology
  • Edited by: Steven W. Lee
  • Subject:School/Educational Psychology (general), School Psychology, Educational Psychology

Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is the result of ingestion of alcohol during pregnancy. Binge drinking and drinking early in the pregnancy may be more detrimental to the developing fetus than moderate drinking and ingesting alcohol on a regular basis during the pregnancy (Maier & West, 2001). Prevalence is approximately one to two per 1,000 live births, with a higher incidence in low socioeconomic status (SES) populations. Individuals with FAS have characteristic facial anomalies (flat upper lip, low nasal bridge, short nose, small head size), retardation of growth, and behavioral (social problems) and cognitive deficits (mental retardation, difficulty learning new material) (Warren & Foudin, 2001). In the past, a diagnosis of fetal alcohol effect (FAE) was made when an individual did not have the characteristic ...

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