Table of Specifications

The table of specifications (TOS) is a tool used to ensure that a test or assessment measures the content and thinking skills that the test intends to measure. Thus, when used appropriately, it can provide response content and construct (i.e., response process) validity evidence. A TOS may be used for large-scale test construction, classroom-level assessments by teachers, and psychometric scale development. It is a foundational tool in designing tests or measures for research and educational purposes.

The primary purpose of a TOS is to ensure alignment between the items or elements of an assessment and the content, skills, or constructs that the assessment intends to assess. That is, a TOS helps test constructors to focus on issue of response content, ensuring that the test or ...

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