Cultural values are broadly shared norms, principles, standards of behavior, and judgments about what is important in life in a society. There are several typologies of cultural values. The cultural dimensions proposed by Geert Hofstede, the most widely known, are described next, followed by a consideration of the implications of differences in cultural values of societies.

Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions

Between 1967 and 1973, Hofstede executed a large survey study on behalf of IBM regarding national value differences across the worldwide subsidiaries of the multinational corporation. He compared the answers of 117,000 employees of the company matched with the same attitude survey in different countries and came up with the first quantifiable framework to explain differences between national cultures by uncovering the following dimensions: Power Distance Index, Individualism ...

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