Self-consciousness refers to a person’s tendency to focus attention on his or her own thoughts and feelings that results in awareness, control, intention, and self-reflection. Because personal actions and choices are based on what one sees, feels, and believes, self-consciousness is essential to understanding human action and moral development.

The state of self-consciousness, therefore, has fundamental personal, social, and cultural consequences. Its related aspects include self-awareness and self-knowledge—terms more frequently applied in management theories. Integral to understanding self-consciousness are definitions of self and self-concept.

Defining Self and Self-Concept

Broadly defined, the self is an array of self-relevant knowledge acquired through thinking, feeling, and motivation. A unique quality of the self is one’s reflexive capacity to be the object of his or her own attention, likened to looking at ...

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