Price-fixing is any agreement between competitors (“horizontal”), or between manufacturers, wholesalers, and retailers (“vertical”), to raise, fix, or otherwise maintain prices. Many, though not all, price-fixing agreements are illegal under antitrust or competition law. Illegal actions may be prosecuted by government criminal or civil enforcement officials, or by private parties who have suffered economic damages as a result of the conduct. This entry introduces the concept of price-fixing with a focus on horizontal, vertical, and international price-fixing.

Horizontal Price-Fixing

Examples of horizontal price-fixing agreements include agreements to adhere to a price schedule or range; to set minimum or maximum prices; to advertise prices cooperatively, or to restrict price-advertising; to standardize terms of sale such as credits, markups, trade-ins, rebates or discounts; or to standardize the package of ...

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