Plagiarism consists of presenting the words or ideas of someone else as one’s own without appropriate acknowledgment. A variety of intellectual materials can be plagiarized, including works of art, music, computer code, and graphics, but paradigmatically plagiarism involves copying text or concepts from written works, whether fictional or nonfictional. When done intentionally, it is usually motivated by the desire to receive credit for something written or created by another. Plagiarism is characteristically regarded as a serious academic and ethical misdemeanor, sometimes even an academic “cardinal sin.” In professional scholarly contexts, it can result in a wide range of sanctions, from informal embarrassment and shame to formal censure and even loss of career. For students, plagiarism has potentially serious consequences too. It is universally forbidden ...

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