A network is a formation of individual agents or nodes where each is connected to one or more other nodes by a link. The individual nodes may be businesses, individuals, computers, or other units. The links may be based on infrastructure, beneficial relationships, or collaboration. Networks can bring efficiency through asset sharing and competency pooling, and it has become a common form of organization in many business sectors. Advances in computing power and the advent of widespread access to the Internet at the end of 20th century ushered in a rise of online social networking and an expansion of computerized control of physical networks, such as power grids and transport systems.

Three important features of networks are that they operate at two levels: that the users ...

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