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The Kyoto Protocol was an international agreement to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by establishing reduction targets for participating nations. It was an amendment to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and was adopted in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997. The protocol was based on the belief that increases in carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases were a major cause of climate change, a position supported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. It was modeled in many respects on the Montreal Protocol, an international agreement that focused on the reduction of ozone-depleting substances to restore the planet’s ozone layer, which was widely regarded as a success. By contrast, the Kyoto Protocol was much less successful in achieving significant progress in meeting greenhouse ...

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