Immorality (also labeled moral badness, evilness, or wickedness) is manifest in actions that are culpable violations of moral norms and in the character of persons disposed to perform such actions. Though there is disagreement about the nature and content of moral norms, and the conditions under which an individual is responsible for his or her violation, there is consensus that when another’s conduct or character is immoral, other-directed reactive attitudes such as blame and resentment are appropriate, and when one’s own behavior or disposition is immoral, self-directed reactive attitudes such as guilt, shame, and regret are fitting.

Philosophers delineate different forms of immorality and debate whether or not immoral behavior is always irrational. Behavioral scientists study the causes of immorality. Management and organizational theorists aim ...

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