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As a point of departure, guanxi can be described as a social network that can help people obtain goods, services, and jobs or access to a college, for example. In Mandarin, the noun guanxi can refer to a person, relation, or network depending on the context. Indeed, no literal translation exists for guanxi that incorporates aspects of relationship building and the rights and duties that two or more parties have toward each other. C. Chen and colleagues have identified at least three research streams on guanxi dealing with individual/interpersonal levels, organizations’ financial and strategic performance, and social and moral dilemmas.

Confucianism, practiced in Mainland China, Greater China, and Southeast Asia, considers people as a part of the social network in which a person plays different roles. ...

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